中文翻译暂定版,原文为英文。非官方文件。

 

왕폭宏횡祛횔옵렝옵왠,뎃拮路瓜勻淪훙잚숯영、르日뵨옵넣崎랙嵐돨茄君。앴뮌셕,왕폭宏횡첼쾨芚냥逞홍헷500拱훙법豆价空。쐴밗瞳갯斗왕폭충품,轟훙옵鹿妗출,뎃肝왕폭宏횡맏충緞捲녑샌離댕돨횐竟寮狼관윅랏古、맘큽섟틋위훙왯된瞳코돨흽覺횐竟,랍儉쳬攣角벌셥훙홈랬훰槨벌소壇뚤페맏唐景喝屢蛟돨횐竟。

띳죡돨왕폭醴좆誇벧훙잚삶、숯영鹿섟랏古灌윱돨랙嵐。왕폭宏횡谿珂瓜勻淪뒈헷뻔쓱돨옵넣崎昑,凜槨뚤뒈헷돨츱랍喇,썅씐왕폭돨路狼昑엄꼇饑黨썅씐彊。

옰欺聯앴츠횅깊츠,왕폭宏횡뚤몸훙숯영옵鹿던윱湛씹돨愆벧,돔鈴섣깹、꽥섣뵨价空,슉됴첼몸훙돨삶醴좆,랍할삔愆벧로꼬、懃斗、댕켬、튄륀뵨페儉포바,藤속뻤깹뵨꽥섣돨루麴,섯빎緞捲훙竟돨杰唐溝固。

왕폭宏횡뚤櫓됴澗흙벌소芚냥돨삔뵨쒔셌愆呵앵댕。텁댕돨쒔셌愆呵璃鹿羸怒옵넣崎랙嵐。鹿왕폭宏횡槨덜송、陌믓무묾숯영섟뻔쓱緞捲돨쒔셌藤낀켜鹿넣崎、唐膝돛돠。

횝뺏柯횝죕뵨膠醴角芚냥홍헷왕폭宏횡돨庫뵀禱禁。劍冷角끓붚抉、솖骨뵨뒈충높南된똬퍅폭빅宏횡膠돨路狼都庫,鹿섟芚냥랗南뺏抉탤렴돨寮狼윱都。왕폭宏횡狂痙돨冀뜩썩엄렘갭冷쉥뚤숑뻠폭빅긴뺏끓생섐緞捲,槨茄君1.5▲C돨폭빅侊왠커깃隣놔路狼묽窘。

썩엄왕폭宏횡충줄淪무묾뵨降훙尻렴栗都꼇璃할宅慤檄방친꼇튈토돨위쓱。祛횔乖쳬꼇랩瞳왕폭宏횡왠齡、숑뻠폭빅긴뺏뵨옵넣崎랙嵐裂쇌茄君葵谿鱗痰돨샙삔,뎃홱灌념롸속鹿적痰。

왕폭宏횡角옵鹿렝렀돨狂痙。뎃흔벎꼇꽃혤劤契땡,왕폭宏횡쉥셨崎냥槨홍헷훙왯价空돨寮狼癎。疼속裂일쥑뺏、훙왯藤낀뵨냘懇뺏狂痙돨속양,价空훙鑒쉥磊쾨藤뜩。

乖쳬옵鹿꽃혤됴냥굶、멕槻樓돨렘駕왠齡왕폭宏횡,쉥漣꿉、접랬、랬방、깃硫뵨獵랬唐槻써북,股契劤세減,瓊멕삔훰列。왕폭宏횡왠齡唐적黨긁출섣깹、렝岺끓제愆呵,닒랍다쏵쒔셌藤낀,芚르벌췽쒔셌。

켓렷、것鮫、돠벌뵨쳄벌돨벌소옰欺牘뵨努欺옰欺牘빌屠漣리쥴돔、폐撚뵨췽露꽃혤쏨선契땡,숑홍헷왕폭宏횡,鹿다쏵훙잚숯영뵨르日,股쏵뻔쓱괏빱,槨옵넣崎랙嵐눼芚唐적係숭。冀뜩젬북벌옵넣崎랙嵐커깃떼宅썩엄왕폭宏횡狂痙口口宮밑。

巧杰벌소옰欺牘瓊累繫법寧淃밑黨왕폭宏횡돨홍헷폡獨,쉥왠齡뵨숑왕폭宏횡鱗槨杰唐벌소돨膽邱慤淃。

空气污染危及每个人的健康

洁净的空气对生命和健康不可或缺。空气污染是当今世界上导致疾病和过早死亡的最主要环境原因,每年至少500万人因空气污染相关原因而过早死亡。尽管空气污染面前无人幸免,但其对贫穷弱势人口、少数和边缘化群体所造成的疾病负担最为沉重。

空气污染危害人的一生,从呱呱坠地到人生尽头,从成长发育之初到耄耋高龄,它导致各类急慢性疾病,而对此尤为敏感的群体包括胎儿、儿童、老年人和患有慢性疾病的人士。肺部、心脏、大脑、血管系统、新陈代谢和生殖,几乎所有人体器官、系统和过程均难逃空气污染的影响。

空气污染是导致婴儿及儿童罹患肺炎、支气管炎和哮喘的主要原因,致使儿童和青少年正处发育中的肺部出现生长迟缓。它还可引发心脏病(包括心律失常和急性心肌梗死)、中风、癌症、哮喘、慢性阻塞性肺病、糖尿病、过敏、湿疹和皮肤老化。越来越多的证据表明,空气污染可能导致成人痴呆症,并影响儿童的大脑发育。

因使用固体燃料(煤和生物质燃料)进行烹饪而产生的家庭空气污染对低收入国家妇女的影响尤为严重,她们也是罹患由污染诱发相关疾病最为严重的群体。然而妇女还需挑起重担,照顾其他患上与空气污染有关的健康问题的家庭成员。

各个社会的空气污染风险各不相同,受影响程度也因人而异。个人的受影响程度与年龄、性别、教育、社会经济地位、地理位置和居所、用于烹饪及取暖的燃料以及职业等因素有关。包括遗传易感性和原发疾病(如哮喘、心脏病或糖尿病)在内的生物因素也会增加个人的受影响程度。

与空气污染有关的疾病造成生产力损失,进而可能减少国内生产总值,导致缺勤、缺课的情况,致使现有的社会不平等现象不断延续。此外,在快速工业化的国家中,这些疾病所产生的医疗保健成本可多达国家卫生预算的7%。

根据估算,2015年,176个国家的空气污染(室内及室外)相关疾病所造成的全球经济负担达3.8万亿美元。而对抗空气污染所产生的健康和经济效益却将在总体上远远超过这些举措的成本。

污染空气的行为招致种种健康问题,而污染者非但不为之买单,还将这种种恶果转嫁到全人类身上。因此,共同保护公众健康、免受空气污染威胁是对全人类的道德约束。

燃烧化石和生物质燃料是空气污染的主要来源

对人类健康构成最大威胁的空气污染物是空气中的颗粒物。未经过滤的燃烧排放物中含有大量的超细颗粒物、细颗粒物和大颗粒物,其中包括黑碳及有害气体。

空气污染是由不同因素构成的复杂问题。细颗粒水平(PM2.5质量浓度)和臭氧水平可作为监管工作的可靠指标;黑碳则可作为监测燃烧排放物的参考。

与燃烧有关的空气污染主要来源于:a)固定燃烧设施,b)家庭供暖和烹饪,c)受控生物质燃烧和废物燃烧,以及d)流动污染源。不同污染源的相对重要性因国家而异。

  • 固定污染源包括发电厂、制造设施和受到排放限制的采矿行为。最严重的违规行为通常涉及燃烧煤炭或其他劣质燃料的设施,或由于电网不稳定而依赖柴油发电机的设施。
  • 家庭是空气污染的重要来源,特别是在依赖生物质燃料取暖和烹饪的低收入国家。不仅如此,它也是人们暴露于空气污染的主要场所。
  • 与农业废物焚烧及土地和森林开垦有关的受控生物质燃烧是发展中国家空气污染的主要来源。除此之外的无控生物质燃烧则与日常生活用品及其他废物的焚烧有关。
  • 空气污染的流动污染源包括私人和公共部门的靠石油驱动的汽车、卡车和公共汽车,它们都是城市空气污染的主要来源。老旧及保养不善且主要靠低等燃烧物驱动的车辆所造成的危害尤为显著。船舶和飞机的排放则是港口和机场附近空气污染的主要流动污染源。

空气污染控制与减缓气候变化之间存在协同效应,因为两者产生的根源相同,解决方案基本一致,而且大多数空气污染物都对气候造成影响。空气污染和气候变化之间还以多种方式相互作用、互相加剧,例如甲烷等温室气体助长地面臭氧的形成,地面臭氧水平随温度升高而上升,温度升高会增加野火的频率,进而加剧颗粒物空气污染程度。

燃烧产生的黑碳不仅危害健康,而且影响地区温度、降水和极端天气。北极和诸如喜马拉雅山脉等冰川区域尤为容易受沉积黑碳加热地表的影响,并进而导致融化。因黑碳气溶胶-云相互作用而产生的降雨模式改变则可能对生态系统和人类生计产生深远影响,例如导致季风中断和干旱,且会对非洲和亚洲大部分地区的农业造成灾难性的后果。

 

行动呼吁

南非、巴西、德国和美国的五所国家科学院共同呼吁政府领导、企业和民众采取行动,积极减少世界各国的空气污染。这一呼吁是基于空气污染对健康影响的确凿科学证据而提出的。
许多现有的协议、决议、公约和倡议已经着力针对空气污染问题的方方面面制定了措施。其中包括《蒙特利尔议定书》、联合国欧洲经济委员会《远距离越境空气污染公约》、世界卫生组织《烟草控制框架公约》以及世界卫生大会《有关空气污染对健康影响的决议》。
因此,五所科学院提议通过一项关于空气污染的全球契约,以确保最高层面的持续参与,并将控制和减少空气污染作为所有国家的优先事项。该契约还将鼓励政策制定者和包括私营部门在内的其他主要合作伙伴将控制和减少排放纳入国家和地方规划、开发进程以及商业和金融战略。这一进程的成功将离不开政治领导和伙伴关系,包括与现有的多国结构合作。
科学院明白不存在一体适用的万全之策,必须因情况制宜,因国家而异。尽管如此,以下领域亟需采取行动:
许多政策和技术解决方案有利于减少有害的燃烧产物。针对固定污染源,可采取对工业企业和发电厂实施排放控制,或改用清洁燃料等措施。针对家庭,包括提供清洁家用燃料。针对受控生物质燃烧,包括执行旨在消除垃圾焚烧的条规,采用有助减少作物燃烧的新型农业技术。针对流动污染源,可以推进和投资可持续的公共交通运输和城市基础设施。
有效的政策和技术需要共同分享。在可行的情况下,应该尽快在全球不同经济发展水平的国家中实施这些战略。一些解决方案很容易便能取得高度共识。但如果缺乏共识,或者政策选择在很大程度上取决于背景情况(即法律制度、地理、经济发展阶段、污染源的异质性),除采取国际通行的行动之外,需要因地制宜制定政策。
我们需要从各个城市和国家收集空气污染控制的成功案例,从中汲取经验教训,并与现在开始着手解决这一问题的国家分享。
人口暴露度与人口密度、污染物浓度和暴露持续时间直接相关。针对为改善空气质量所采取的行动,在优化其成本和效益方面,应优先从可以经济有效地减少人口暴露的污染源入手,并着重考虑减少最贫困的社会群体的暴露度,同时谨记这两个指标有时可能发生冲突。
所有国家务必充分监测关键污染指标,特别是PM2.5浓度和人口暴露度。此外,各国需要开展后续统计分析工作,以评估政策行动的成功与否。
需要确定政策工具之间的协同效应。应优先考虑能最大程度发挥各项发展目标之间协同作用的政策,包括减缓气候变化和确保粮食安全。提高能源效率可以减少二氧化碳和有害燃烧产物,此外减缓气候变化的众多其他战略也是如此,例如提高对可再生能源的依赖度、实行运输电气化。
致力于制定解决方案的实施策略。实施战略可能包括提升机构能力、加强治理,以及建立完善的跨机构合作和执行机制。
使用风险评估和成本效益分析工具将有助于确定政策设计和目标。空气污染控制政策应以具有成本效益的方式减少暴露度。理想情况下,它们还应该惠及气候等其他领域,或农业等其他行业。可以鼓励污染者寻找最经济的方法减少污染,从而降低暴露。
这项行动呼吁需要调集大量财政资源和投资来达成减少空气污染的目标。在相关研究、污染监测、基础设施、管理和控制以及与利益相关者互动方面也需要增加资金支持。
最后,我们还需要积极倡导全民行动,为公民提供相关资讯,激励民众从点滴小事做起,减少空气污染,并号召公共和私营机构做出引领示范性的表率。

参与人员

工作小组

Maria de Fatima Andrade
Professor of Meteorology and Atmo­spheric Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Paulo Artaxo
Professor of Environmental Physics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Simone Georges El Khouri Miraglia
Associate Professor and Leader of the Laboratory of Economics, Health and Environmental Pollution (LESPA), Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Nelson Gouveia
Associate Professor of Epidemiology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Alan J. Krupnick
Senior Fellow, Resources for the ­Future, Washington, DC, U.S.A.

Jean Krutmann
Scientific Director, IUF — Leibniz ­Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Düsseldorf, Germany

Philip J. Landrigan
Professor of Biology and Director, Program in Global Public Health and the Common Good, Boston College, Boston, U.S.A.

Kristy Langerman
Senior Lecturer, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa

Tafadzwa Makonese
Senior Researcher and Lab Manager, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa

Angela Mathee
Director MRC Environment & Health Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council (SAMRC), Johannesburg, South Africa

Stuart Piketh
Professor of Environmental Science, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa

Beate Ritz
Professor of Epidemiology and Environmental Health Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, U.S.A.

Paulo H. N. Saldiva
Director, Institute of Advanced Studies, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Jonathan Samet
Dean, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, U.S.A.

Tamara Schikowski
Head of Research Group “Environmental epidemiology of lung, brain and skin aging”, IUF — Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Düsseldorf, Germany

Alexandra Schneider
Head of Research Group “Environmental Risks”, Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München — German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany

Kirk R. Smith
Professor of Global Environmental Health, University of California, Berkeley, U.S.A. and Director, Collaborative Clean Air Policy Centre, Delhi, India

Claudia Traidl-Hoffmann
Chair and Institute of Environmental Medicine, UNIKA-T, Technical University of Munich and Helmholtz Zentrum München — German Research Center for Environmental Health, Augsburg, Germany

Alfred Wiedensohler
Head of Department for Experimental Aerosol and Cloud Microphysics, Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig, Germany

Caradee Wright
Specialist Scientist, South African Medical Research Council (SAMRC), Parktown, South Africa

特邀外部专家

David Richard Boyd
United Nations Special Rapporteur on Human Rights and the Environment, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), Geneva, Switzerland

Valentin Foltescu
Senior Science and Programme Officer, Climate and Clean Air Coalition Secretariat, United Nations Environment, New Delhi, India

Richard Fuller
Lancet Commission on Pollution and Health Co-Chair, Pure Earth and Global Alliance on Health and Pollution, New York, U.S.A.

Dorota Jarosińska
Programme Manager, World Health Organization, European Centre for Environment and Health, Bonn, Germany

Jacqueline Myriam McGlade
Former Chief Scientist, United Nations Environment, Nairobi, Kenya

Drew Shindell
Duke University Durham, NC, U.S.A. and Chair of the Scientific Advisory Panel, Climate and Clean Air Coalition, Paris, France

秘书处

Marcos Cortesao Barnsley Scheuenstuhl
Executive Director of International Affairs, Brazilian Academy of Sciences (ABC), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

John P. Boright
Director of International Affairs, U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS), Washington, DC, U.S.A.

Siyavuya Bulani
Senior Liaison Officer, Academy of Science of South Africa (ASSAf), Pretoria, South Africa

Margaret Hamburg
Foreign Secretary, U.S. National Academy of Medicine (NAM), Washington, DC, U.S.A.

Kathrin Happe
Deputy Head of Department of Science — Policy — Society, German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina, Halle (Saale), Germany

Jan Nissen
Senior Officer, Department of International Relations, German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina, Halle (Saale), Germany

Isabel Scheer
Assistant, Department of Inter­national Relations, German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina, Halle (Saale), Germany

补充阅读

综合评估

European Environment Agency. Air Quality in Europe — 2018. EEA Report.

International Energy Agency. Energy and Air Pollution. World Energy Outlook Special Report. Paris: 2016. (accessed 21 Nov 2018).

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